The "M2 Money Supply", also referred to as "M2 Money Stock", is a measure for the amount of currency in circulation. M2 includes M1 (physical cash and checkable deposits) as well as "less liquid money", such as saving bank accounts. The chart above plots the yearly M2 Growth Rate and the Inflation Rate, which is defined as the yearly change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). When inflation is high, prices for goods and services rise and thus the purchasing power per unit of currency decreases.
Historically, M2 has grown along with the economy (see in the chart below). However, it has also grown along with Federal Debt to GDP during wars and recessions. In most recent history, M2 growth surpassed 10 percent in the crisis of 2001 and 2009, during which an expansionary monetary policy was deployed by the central bank, including large scale asset purchases.
According to Bannister and Forward (2002, page 28), Money supply growth and inflation are inexorably linked.
The velocity of money is a measurement of the rate at which money is exchanged in an economy. High money velocity is usually associated with a healthy, expanding economy. Low money velocity is usually associated with recessions and contractions. According to the Quantity Theory of Money, inflation depends on the money supply and its velocity. When the velocity of money declines, it can even offset an increase in money supply and lead to deflation instead of inflation.
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